“Appropriate Treatment” and Therapeutic Window in Spasticity Treatment with IncobotulinumtoxinA: From 100 to 1000 Units
Giancarlo Ianieri *, Riccardo Marvulli, Giulia Alessia Gallo, Pietro Fiore and Marisa Megna
Department of Basic Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, G. Cesare Place 11, 70125 Bari, Italy
Toxins 2018, 10(4) (DOI: 10.3390/toxins10040140)
Many neurological diseases (ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, multiple sclerosis, infant cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injury, and other cerebrovascular disorders) may cause muscle spasticity. Different therapeutic strategies have been proposed for the treatment of spasticity. One of the major treatments for tone modulation is botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A), performed in addition to other rehabilitation strategies based on individualized multidisciplinary programs aimed at achieving certain goals for each patient. Therapeutic plans must be precisely defined as they must balance the reduction of spastic hypertonia and retention of residual motor function. To perform and optimize the treatment, an accurate clinical and instrumental evaluation of spasticity is needed to determine how this symptom is invalidating and to choose the best doses, muscles and times of injection in each patient. We introduce an “appropriate treatment” and no “standard or high dosage treatment” concept based on our retrospective observational study on 120 patients lasting two years, according to the larger Therapeutic Index and Therapeutic Window of Incobotulinumtoxin A doses from 100 to 1000 units. We studied the efficiency and safety of this drug considering the clinical spasticity significance for specialist physicians and patients.